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汉口旧领事馆

发布时间:2018-11-19 11:06 来源:亚博网页版 浏览量:9418

  hankoudiliweizhiyouyue,suyou“jiushengtongqu”zhicheng,mingqingshiqi,youyushangyefanshengchengweiwoguosidamingzhen。qingdai,hankoumatougengjiafanmang,huowujusanziru,zaiyapianzhanzhengqianjiuyishizhangjiangliuyudehuowujisanzhongxinhezhongyaodemaoyigangkou。1858nian,dierciyapianzhanzhengzhanbai,qingzhengfubeipoyugeguoqianding《tianjintiaoyue》,yunxuwaiguoshangchuanshiruzhangjianggetongshangkouan;waiguokezaitongshangkouanshezhilingshiguan;waiguorenkezaineidiyouli、jingshang。1861nianzhongyingliangguoqianding《hankouzujietiaokuan》,tongnian4yue27ri,shanghaiyinglingshishudanfangmiangongbu《zhangjianggekoutongshangzanxingzhangcheng》,xuanbu“hankou、jiujiangpiweishangbu,shezhilingshi”,hankouzhengshikaibutongshang。

  hankoukaibuhou,fa、e、meidengguoyeqiangpoyaoqiuxiangshouzhongying《tianjintiaoyue》tongdengdezuihuiguodaiyulaihantongshang,hankoushangyefansheng,jinchukoumaoyiyurijuzeng。kaibuchuqi,meiedengguomeiyoushezhilingshiguan,qilaihanmaoyidehuochuan,keyisuiyizhuangzaihuowu,meiyoujigoujinxingguanli。weijiaqianglaiwangchuanzhiheshangmaorenyuanguanli,guifanmaoyi,huguangzongduguanwensuizhihanzongligeguoshiwuyamen,qingdingzhangcheng,zhangchengmingwenguiding:“waiguoshangchuanjinchutongshangkouan,bixushelingshiguanguanli,fangzhunmaoyi。ruwulingshiguan,yunweitaguolingshiguandaili。lingshiguanxizhengshiguanyuan,budeyishangrenchongshu。fouze,yanjinmaoyi,renshenanquan,difangguangaibufuze。”qingtingjiangcizhangchengzhaohuigetongshangguo,getongshangguofenfenxianhoushelingshihuodaililingshi。minguoshiqi,hankoushezonglingshiguandeyouying、mei、e、fa、ri、de、yidali、bilishi8guo;shelingshiguanhuozhelingshiguanyewudeyouputaoya、danmai、helan、ruidiandeng12guo,gongyou20guozonglingshijilingshi(daiban)zhuhankou。

 

汉口第一个外国领事馆

  1861nian3yue,yingguohaijunzhongjiang、zhuhuajianduisilinghebu(adrmiral james hopu)yuzhuhuagongshiguancanzanbaxiali(hary smith parkes)lvjunjiancongshanghaisuzhangjiangdaodahankou,yuqinghubeidifangdangjuqianding《hankouzujietiaokuan》,kaipihankouyingzujie,4yue27ri,yingguodanfangmiangongbu“hankou、jiujiangpiweishangbu,shezhilingshi”。benyue,yingguozhuhankoulingshijinzhier(w.r.gingell)daohan,zaiyingzujiejiangbianshezhilingshiguan。ciweiwaiguozaihankoushelidediyigelingshiguan。

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hankouyingguolingshiguan(h.b.m.jiher britannic majestyyiweiyingnvwangbixia)

  yingguozhuhanlingshiguanyu1861nian4yuezhengshikaiguan,lingshiguanneisheyou:“yimingzhenglingshi、yimingfulingshi,sheyoudiyizhuli、dierzhuli、fanyi、zhulifanyi、yisheng、zhongwenshujiyuan、tongshihezhongduodepuren,zhengfuhaizaigaigangpaizhulejunjian”。congziliaozhongkezhi,yingguozhuhanlingshidezhizeshejiyuzhongguofangmianzhongdashiwudejiaoshe、duizujieneishizhengguanli、falvrenshidengfangmian。genju1861nianqiandingde《hankouzujietiaokuan》neirongguiding:“yingzujieneiruhefenduanbingzaogonglu,guanbancidiyiqieshiyi,quanguiyingguozhuzhahubeishenglingshiguanzhuanguan,suishidingzhangbanli。meinian4yuenei,youyingguolingshiguanjiangyishangdidingcaomijiagongyin92liang6qian7fenliangli1hao,qingjiaohanyangxianrushuchashou,fangkeyongzuwuyi”。1891nianyingguozhuhanlingshiguanhuitongyingguogongshangjieyouguanrenshizhidingle《yingzujiebufangzhangcheng》,nangkuolezujiedetudizhidu、lifazhidujixingzhengzhidudengfangmiandeneirong。gaizhangchengguidingyingzujieneibianmaidijideliyuediyaxiangguanfangxuzaiguidingshijianneiyingzujielingshifudengji。ciwaiduizujienei“yiqieshezhi”zhifeiyong,meinian1yue1rihou,youlingshi“zhaojinashuirenmin,yu14riyineikaichangniandahuichouji”。lingshihaikeyipizhunmatouzhizhao,houzaizujieneichenglideyingguogongbujurenxuanyexuhuodelingshiderenke。

  yuanyingguozhuhanzonglingshiguanweiyuhankoutianjinlujiangbian,jinjinshengtianjinlu6haolingshiguandi,zuoweiwenyiduojijinhuiyongfang。weizhizaijintianjinluyuhezuoluzhijian,xizhidongtingjie。lingshiguandiweizhuanmujiegou,gong2ceng,shidianxingdexishitingyuanzhuzhaijianzhu,dicengmudibanxiayoubanyuandikongceng,waiqianglamaofenshi,hongwacengmianshangyouqiwu。1881nianhoujianyoulingshiguandijibangongyong4lou,gongyoufangjian23jian,lingshiguansheyou13jian,jiashangzhouweihuayuanmianjigong16320pingfangmi,1899nianyingguolingshiguancengshenggeweizonglingshiguan。1941nianyouyutaipingyangzhanzhengquanmianbaofa,qinhuarijunjiangyingguozhuhanzonglingshihemeiguozhuhanzonglingshijuyabingqiansongchuzhongguo,tongnian12yueyingguozhuhanlingshiguanbeipoguanbi,zhidao1945nian12yuehuifu。erzhanqijian,1944nian12yuelingshiguanfangwuzaimeiguofeijihongzhaxiazhahuiyichuangzhahuaiyichuang,houyouyingguolingshiguanrenyuanhuafei2.62yijiubizhongjianyichuang,xiuzhengzhalandeyichuang。xinzhongguochenglihou,zhongguorenminchedibaituolelieqiangdeqiyalingru,zhuhanwaiguolingshiguanxiangjibiguan,1951nian4yue30riyingguozhuhanlingshiguanxuanbuzhengshiguanbi。

 

护航“万里茶道”的领事馆

  eguoshangrenshilaihubeijingshangzuizaodewaiguoren,hankouyueguodechayemaoyilishiyoujiu,tamenzaozaihankoukaibuzhiqian,jiuqudelezaihankoudengdigoumaichayedetequan,daliangzhuanchayouhankoujijingzhouzhuanshurueguo,yuzhongguoshangrengongtongkaipileyitiaozhumingdewanlichadao。1861nianhankoukaibuhou,zaicijingyingduoniandeeguoweilebaohueguochashangdeliyi,tongnian7yue,shireneguozhuhulingshixiadeerzhengshijianrenzhenjiang、jiujiang、hankoulingshi,zaihankoulingshiguanshelizhiqian,xianweirenmeiguozhuhanlingshidailieguozaihantongshanggexiangshiwu。1869nian,eguoxianzaihanyangshelilelingshiguan,fangbianzhuanchamaoyi。1891nian,eguozhuhanlingshiyaoqiuhuahanyangmeizishanyidaiweizujieweichenggonghou,eguojianglingshiguanqianzhihankou。1896nian6yue12ri,eguozonglingshiyuhubeidifangxingzhengdangjuqiandingle《hankouezujieditiaoyue》,huadingezujiefanwei,eguozaizujieneikaishijianshelingshiguanguanshe。

1904年建成的汉口俄国领事馆.jpg

1904nianjianchengdehankoueguolingshiguan

  eguolingshiguanyu1861nian7yuezhengshikaifang,1902nianzaihankoujianchengguanshe。eguolingshiguandediyigezhongyaozhizeshijiaqiangchayemaoyidiwei,baohuchashangliyi,tongguohankoujiangfujian、jiangxi、hunan、anhuidengdidechaye,zhuankouyunwangshengbidebaoshenzhizhenggeouzhou。diergezhongyaozhinengshi,yuzhongguozhengfufangmianjinxingzhongdashiwudejiaoshe,huafengengduoliyi。1891nianzhi1896nian,weimouqiuzaihankoushelizujie,eguozhuhanlingshiyuqingzhengfufangmianjiaoshezhouxuanduoci,zuizhongzaihankouhuadinglemianji414mu6fen5lideezujie。1897nian12yue9ri,elingshiyouqiangpoqingzhengfuqiandingle《hankouezujiegouditiaoyue》(youcheng《eguohankouchengzujiangandijitiaoyue》)gong3tiao,jiangzuoluojiangbiandeheji61.78musiduandijijifangwuchengzujieguo。disangezhongyaozhinengshiezujiedeshizhengjiansheyuguanli。《hankouezujieditiaoyue》guidingeguolingshiguanmeiniansiyuejiangzujieyingnazujiagongyin83liang8qian4fen2lijiaosonghanyangxianchashouhuijie,ezujieyiqieshiyiguielingshiguananzhaotiaoyuejihoudingzhangchengbanli。

汉口俄租界,从巴公房子看美国领事馆和俄国领事馆顶部.jpg

hankouezujie,congbagongfangzikanmeiguolingshiguanheeguolingshiguandingbu

  eguolingshiguanjinweiyudongtingxiaolute1hao。gaijianzhuweihunzhuanjiegou,shuyuyidalibaluokejianzhufengge,gongliangceng,jianzhupingmianchengshanxing,mianjigong2819pingfangmi。1904nian,elingshiguankuojian,lingshiguanquzhandimianjishiduomu,chulingshiguanwai,hailingjianlejiuchuangliangcenggaojizhuzhailou,hongzhuanqingshuiqiang,menchuangjunweigaojimucai。gaijianzhuhuameifuli,zuoluozaijinfenshehuadeezujienei,shigeguozhuhanlingshiguanjianzhuzhongzuihaohuadeyichuang。1917nian,eguoshiyuegemingchanshengxinzhengquan,lingshiguanguanbi,1924nianzhongguoshouhuiezujie,suweiaizhengquanjianlihou,sulianzhuhanzonglingshiguanyu1925niankaiguan。houlaiyinweisuobanshiwubuduo,1927zidongbiguandao1933nianzaicikaiguan,zhizhi1947nian,lingshiguanzhengshibiguan。jiahouhoudeeguolingshiguandalouxianweishangyeyongfang。

 

最后收回的一块租借地

  suizhehankoukaibutongshang,faguoshangrenyezhujianlaihankoujinxingmaoyi。1862nian(tongzhiyuannian)faguozaihankoushelilingshiguan,faguozhengfujingguoduocijiaoshe,congzhongguozhengfuhuodeleyingzujieyixiachengyuanneitudidechengzuquan,danshangweiqiandingzhengshizujieqiyue。1856nian,faguokaishijianlingshiguandalou,xinjiandalou1891nianbeihongshuichonghui,1892nianzhongjian。faguozaizuichudezheikuaizujiedishangyoumingwushi,zaizhidaozhenzhengqiandingtiaoyuehuadingfazujiedezhongjiansanshiduonianli,jibenshangshiyipiankongdi,faguolingshiguanshifaguorenzaizheilixiujiandeweiyi、danqueshizuizhongyaodejianzhu。 erzailingshiguanhoudedapiankongdishangkaipilehankouchengneizuizaodexishangpaomachang,zhidaokaishizhengshijianshezujiecaiqianyidaochengyuanwai(jinjiefanggongyuanyidai)。

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hankoufaguolingshiguan

  1896nian6yue2riyoufaguozhushanghaidezonglingshiyujianghanguanjianduzhaitingshaoqianding《hankouzujiezuyue》,quedingfazujie。weijiaqiangduizujiedeguanlihejianshe,chulingshiguanwai,zujieneishehaishegongbuju、xunbufang。genju《hankouzujiezuyue》deguiding,faguolingshizhijiezhangwozujiedexingzhengquan。lingshifuzezaizujieneiweichizhixuhegonggonganquan,youfuzexingzhenggongzuodelingshihefuzesifagongzuodelingshi,fenbiechuliweifanjiaotongfaguiheweifanxunbufangzhidudexiangguanshixiang。zailingshixiujiahuodaililingshibuzaideqingkuangxia,lingshiguanlizujiedequanliyoulingshiguandailizhixing。lingshianqixiangzhuhuagongshihuofaguowaijiaobuhuibaozujiedeshizhengqingkuang。xunbufangxunbuderenming、tingzhihebamianyoulingshifuze。ciwailingshiguanmeiniansiyuejiangzudiyingnadiding、caomigongzheqian37liang8qian1fen1li,jiaosonghanyangxianchashouhuijie。rijunqinzhanwuhanqijian,1939nian5yue,weijiaqiangtongribenzhanlingjundelianxi,faguolingshiguanhaizhuanmensheliribenke。

  faguolingshiguanshiercengzhuanmujiegou,shuyunanyazhiminfenggedexishitingyuanjianzhu。shangxialiangceng,wailanggongquan,mashiqiangmian,fangzhumendou,mendoushangyangtai,hongwading,quanpumudiban,muzhibaiyemenchuang,loufangsizhoujianhuayuan。dizhixianweihankoudongtingjie81hao。erzhanhouribentoujiang,zhongguocaizhengshijieguanlehankoufazujiedeguanliquan,hankoufazujieshizhongguozuihoushouhuideyikuaizujiedi。zaizheikuaitebiezhidishang,faguolingshiguancong1862niankaiguanzhidao1950nianbiguan,zhongjianweicengbiguan,zaihanshijianzhangda88nian。1950nian-2013nianjianzuoweiwuhanshizhengfujiguanzhuzhai。

 

因侵华战争被炸毁过两次的领事馆

  zaizhongduodezhuhanlingshiguanzhong,mingyunzuiweibozhedeyingshiribenzhuhanlingshiguan。youyuzhongriguanxihekangrizhanzhengdexingshifazhan,ribenzhuhanlingshiguanduocibiguan、fuguan;dizhijijingbanqian;guanshejianzhuyecengliangcibeizhanhuozhahui。ribenjiqijiyuwuhanzaizhongguodejingjizhongxindiwei,buduanxianghankouquanmianshentou。1885nian12yue,ribenzhuhankoulingshiguanzhengshikaiguan。

日本领事馆,1938年武汉沦陷前夕被中国军队炸毁.jpg

ribenlingshiguan,1938nianwuhanlunxianqianxibeizhongguojunduizhahui

  lingshichufuzeduiwaiguojiaoshe,kuozhangshili,zujieneisuoyoudaolu、matou、gouqudexiujianjijichadimian、tudidechuzu、fangwudejianzao,weihurishangliyi,xiangzhongguoguanfujiaonashuifeijiqitagonggongshiyiwai;duijieneidexingzhengshiwuyeyouduofangmiandejianduquan:juliuminhuixuanjudeyiyuanxujinglingshirenke。juliumintuantuanzhangzhuyisuiyoujuliumintuanzhangtuijian,danxudedaolingshijizhuhuagongshiderenke。mintuanhuijizhurensuiyoumintuancanshihuituijian,danyexudedaolingshiderenke。

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yuanzhizhongjianderibenlingshiguan,xianhuishendajiudian

  youyuqiaominrenshujiaoshao,yewubuduo,1891nian4yue1ri,ribenwaiwushengxianlinghankoulingshiguanbiguan,tongnian9yue28riribenzhuhanlingshiguanbiguan,qirichangshiwuyoushanghairibenlingshiguandaiguan。1898nian7yue16ri,zhongriqianding《hankouribenzhuanguanzujietiaokuan》,huadingrizujie,weijiaqiangduizujiedeguanli,tongnian8yue7ri,ribenzhuhanlingshiguanzhongkai。1909nianhankouribenlingshiguanshengweizonglingshiguan。1937nianlugouqiaoshibian,zhongrizhanzhengquanmianbaofahou,zonglingshiguanguanbi,zaiwuhanlunxianqianbeizhongguojunduihonghui。1938nian8yue13ri,zhongguozhengfushouhuihankourizujie,tongnian10yue25ri,wuhanlunxian,huifurizujie,ribenzhuhanzonglingshiguanzhongkai。1945nian,zhongguokangzhanshengli,ribentoujiang,ribenzhuhanzonglingshiguanzhengshibiguan。ribenzhuhanlingshiguandizhijijingbiangeng,1903nianshezaichezhanluyidai。20shiji20-30niandaiweiyurizujiehejie,1938nianzhongkaidezonglingshiguancengzhanjujiaotongyinxingdalouhankoushishenglijie2haobangongguo;houyoushezaijinyanjiangdadao。ribenzhuhanlingshiguanguansheshi1913nianjianzao,wuhanlunxianshibeizhahui,ershishijisishiniandaizhongxiu,1944niandongzaizaokongjunhongzha,jinfangwushikangzhanqijianbeizhongguojunminzhahuihouzhongxinjianzaode,xianweihuishendajiudian。ribenlingshiguanjianzhushigangjinhunnitujiegou,shuyuxifanggudianzhuyizhiminfengge。fenliangbufenjianzhuti,qumianlouhetuaolouti,cizhongshejicongshijueshangjiaqianglejianzhuwudedonggan;dingshangdapowa,shangxiasancengquanlang,youmianduizhangjiangdewucenggaozhonglouhesicenggaozhonglou,zhonglouheliaowangtabinglie,zhengduimianzhangjiangyilanyandi。

 

市政府大院中的领事馆

  youyichuangyouwaiguorenjianzao,jinzuoluozaiwuhanshirenminzhengfudayuannei,weirenminzhengfubangongtingyongfang;cengchazhewaiguoguoqi,erjinwuxinghongqizailoudingyingfengpiaozhandejianzhu,gaijianzhujiushideguozhuhanlingshiguan。hankoukaibuchuqi,deguoyouyuzaihanjingshangjichangzhuhankoudedeguorenshenshao,weishelingshiguan。cong1883niankaishi,qizaihanlingshiyewujiqiaominshiyijiaoyouyingguolingshidaiguan,zhidao1888nian,deguozaihankoushelilingshiguan。dao1895nian10yue3riqingzhengfubeipoyudeguozhushanghailingshizaihankouqianding《zhongdehankouzujiehetong》,deguozaizhongguokaipilediyikuaizujie,deguozaihankoushiwubuduanzengduo,tongniandeguolingshiguandaloukaipijianzao。1917nian3yue14ri,zhongguoxuanbuyudeguozhengshiduanjiao,shouhuihankoudezujiehetianjindezujie,deguozhuhanlingshiguanbeipoguanbi。suizhe1921nian《zhongdexieyue》deqianding,zhongdeguanxihuifubingzhujiangaishan;1925nian,zhongguozhengfudeguozhengfuguanxijinyibumiqie,tongniandeguozhuhanlingshiguanyouzhongxinkaiguan。dao1945nian,zhongguokangzhanshengli,deguozhuhanlingshiguanzhengshiguanbi。

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qingmohankoudeguolingshiguan

  deguolingshiguanyuqitaguojiazhuhanlingshiguanleisidezhizezai:meinian4yuejiangdezujieneiyingjiaonadediding、caomiyinliangsongjiaohanyangxianchashouhuijie;zujieneidetudizujie、dijia、zujiefanweidekuodayoulingshiguanfuzehezhongguofangmianjiaoshe;zujieyiqieshiyi,guideguolingshiguananzhaociyuejihoudingzhangchengbanli。qibutongzhizezaiyu:deguolingshiyibanbuganyuzujieneiderichangxingzheng,jinjinqidaojianduzuoyong。

  deguozhuhanlingshiguanguanzhixianweiyuyanjiangdadao188hao。tashuyuzhimindijianzhu,liangcengzhuanmuzhengfangtijiegou,caiyongshangxialiangcengquanlangchuli,huangselamaowaiqiang,hongwapowumian。zhurukoushezaizhengzhong,youmendoutuchu,zhengmianyongtiaoshiqizhutaijie,liangbianzuopodaokezhijieshijinqiche。wudingsijiaogejianyouyigexiaoyuanjiantajiwuyanzhengzhongjianxiaoxingtalou。talousicekaibanyuanxingtianchuang,jimanzuleshineicaiguangyaoqiu,youfengfulejianzhulimian。taloushangyuanyouyizuoliujinyingniao(1916nianchaichu)。zheizhongjichanglanghejiaotayuyishen,biejufenggedejianzhuzaidangshichengzuo“deguoshibaluokefengge”。

 

外国领事馆对武汉早期现代化的影响

  chuying、e、de、ri、fawuguozhuhanlingshiguansheyubenguozujienei,qitaguojiameiyouzaihankoujianlizujie,danyeshelilelingshiguan,pojutesedehaiyoumeiguolingshiguan、ruidianlingshiguandeng,yezhidequyanjiutansuo。zhongduozhuhanlingshiguandejianli,duihankoudeyingxiangjuda,jidailaileshangtong,yeduiqifazhanyoujijidetuijinzuoyong。yifangmian,zailuohouaidadebeijingxia,waiguozhuhanlingshiguanzuoweiyizhongqinlveguafenliyidegongju,lingshigenjugezhongbupingdengtiaoyuegansheguoneizhuquan、duihankouzhengzhi、jingjijinxinglveduojijunshishangderuqin,ruzaihankoukaibangezhonggongchang、yangxingdengjinxingshangpinqingxiaoheziyuanlveduo;geguolingshizaihankoucongweitingzhiguoyuhubeidifangdangjuwoxuan,buduanyidijiakuodazujiefanwei;zaizujieneijianligongbuju、xunbufangdeng,xingshiduliyuzhongguozhuquanguanxiadexingzhengsifaquan,chuxianle“guozhongguo”。lingyifangmian,waiguolingshiguandejianlituidonglewuhanjindaihuadejincheng,yezengjialewuhanyushijiedelianxi。shouxian,laihanjinchukoumaoyidezibenyuelaiyueduo,waishanglaihankaibangongchang,chuxianlegengduowaiguoshangpinhexianjindejishu、linian,keguanshangdaidonglehankoudezaoqizibenzhuyiheminzugongyedefazhan。hankouzaiduanduanershijiniannei,shixianleyouchuantongneijuxingguoneishangyezhongzhenzhuanbianweiwaixiangxingdezhongguosidashangbuzhiyiheneiluzuidadeguojimaoyidouhui,beichengwei“dongfangdezhijiage”。qici,zujiezaigeguolingshiguandeguanlixia,chengshiguihua、shizhengjianshe、jiaotongwangluo、yiliaoweishengdoubizujiewaidehankouxianjinhenduo,zujiedefazhanchengweiledangshichengshifazhandedianfan。zaici,minzhongdeshenghuofangshiyezhujianxiandaihua。ru1901niandeguoximenziyangxingzaihankouzujieneikaibanshineidianhua,hankouxiandaitongxunshiyekaishixingqi;1903nianyingguozhuhanlingshiguanzhongdelingshijiangdiyiliangxiaojiaochekaishangjietou;1906nianhankoudiyizhandiandengzaiyingguozhuhanlingshiguanzhongdianliang;fazujieneidedianyingyuan、hankouxishangpaomachangdengxiandaiyulechangsuodechuxiandourangdangshidehankourendakaiyanjie。ciwai,geguolingshiguanjianzhufenggeduoyang,waiguojianzhujinru,shiwuhandechengshijianzhuxiangjindaijianzhumaijinlexinlicheng。zhuhanlingshiguandekaiguanbiguanyejianzhenglezhongwaiguanxideweimiaobianhua,shiyanjiuzhongwaiguanxideyigezhongyaoshijiao。

汉口美国领事馆.jpg

  hankoumeiguolingshiguan

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