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民国时期武汉横渡长江比赛探秘

发布时间:2020-07-16 11:13 来源:亚博网页版 浏览量:10110

引言:2020年7月14日上午,2020武汉7·16渡江节组委会发布公告:因长江水位过高,为保障人民群众的生命财产安全,经研究并报请武汉市人民政府同意,决定取消今年的渡江活动。渡江节是武汉最具地方特色的一项民众体育活动之一,早在20世纪30年代,武汉就举办过3届群众性渡江活动,其中第二届因水灾而延期举办。让我们追随亚博网页版馆藏档案与资料的踪迹去探寻那段鲜为人知的历史。

  wuhanzigujiuyou“jiangcheng”zhicheng,woguodiyidaheliuzhangjiangheqizuidazhiliuhanjiangjiangqiyifenweisan,xingchenghankou、wuchang、hanyanggejiangxiangwangdechengshigeju。wuhanshidichuzhangjiangzhongyou,chengshiyanjiangerjian,baixingyijiangerju,youjiangerxingdewenhua、xisuhexingqu,xingchengledutedejiangchengtese。zuoweiwuhanshizuijudifangtesedeyixiangminzhongtiyuhuodongzhiyi,hengduzhangjiangbujinzhanxianlewuhanrenmin“ganweirenxian、zhuiqiuzhuoyue”depinbojingshen,tongshiyeshibiaodalewuhanrenminduizhangjiangdereai。

  zhongsuozhouzhi,wuhanshishoujiehengduzhangjiangbisai,shi1956nianmaozedongzhuxisancizaiwuhanchangyouzhangjianghou,wuhanyutongnian6yuejubande,zhijin,wuhanshiyizuzhiguo46jiedujiangbisai,qiefazhanchengweiguojidujiangjie。qishi,wuhancengyu20shiji30niandaijubanguosanjiequnzhongxinghengduzhangjianghuodong,youyuniandaijiuyuan,yixianweirenzhi。danhengduzhangjiangzhizhuangju,cenghongdongwuhansanzhen,xiyinzheshuwanwuhanrenminqianlaiweiguan,changmianshifenrenao,dangshiduofangbaokanduizheiyishengshijinxinglebaodao,tongshiyeliuxialeyixiemi。tongguodui亚博网页版guanzangdexiangguandanganheziliaojinxingzhuiji,womenlaitanmineiduanmiyibandelishigushi。

  yi、wuhanshouchuangqunzhongxinghengduzhangjiangyouyongbisai:cansairenshuyuguanyajijunzhimi

  1934nian9yue9ri,wuhanjubanleshoujiehengduzhangjiangyouyongbisai,yeshizhongguodiyiciyouzuzhidequnzhongxinghengduzhangjiangyouyongbisai。jingsaiyudangrixiawuyishijuxing,qidianshezaiwuchanghuanghujixiahanyangmatou,zhongdianweiyuhankousanbeimatou,quanchengzhijing7500ma(zhehe6858mi)。genju《shenbao》yangzijiangshuiweibaogao,9yue9rihankoushuiweiwei11.28mi,yuwangniantongqixiangbidangshuzhengchangshuiwei,jiaoliyujinxingzhangjiangyouyonghuodong。jugaibaodengzaidetianqiyubao,zhangjiangzhongyouyidai,tianyin,youzhenyu,bingbanyouqiangjingdedongbeifeng。duizhaohengduzhangjiangsaideciduanzouxiang,zhenghaoshinifeng。genju《shenbao》baodaocheng,shirenhubeishengzhuxidezhangqunlilinfabiaojianghua,bingjihuojiangxuanshoubanjiang,kejianhengduzhangjiangbisaishoudaodangdizhengfudezhongshiyuzhichi。tongshi,sheyouxiangyingdebaohucuoshi,cong《liangyou》huabao1934nian10yuehaoshangkanzaidebisaixianchangdezhaopian(tu1)laikan,youyongquanchengyouruoganzhichuanbogensui,yihuxuanshouanquan,bingfangbianzhongtufangqidexuanshoudengchuan。shoujiehengduzhangjiangyouyongbisaihongdongwuhansanzhen,wuhanshiminfenfenqianlaiguankan,“lianganguanzhongyuejisanshiwanren”,changmianshifenrenao。

9.30-1武汉1934年横渡长江赛.jpg

tu1 1934nianwuhandiyijiehengduzhangjiangyouyongbisai

  danyouyushidiyijie,cansairenshubingbushihenduo,genjujuxingchengyinxinghankoufenxing1934nian9yuedashijizhoubaogaojizai,“canjiazhesishijiuren”,er《shenbao》1934nian9yue10ridishiyibanzhongyangshedianbaodao“canjiahegezhexuanshoujisishisiren”,dishiqibanhankoudianzecheng“canjiazhesiwuren”,suirangefangyabowangyebancansairenshudejizaibingbutongyi,danjunwei40yuren,xuanshoujiaoshao。zuizhongyou30duorendaodazhongdian,chenggongdengan,qizhongjingbeilvshibingjuhuaxianghuodeguanjun,chengjiwei33fen30miao。yabowangyebanhuojiangxuanshourenyuanmingdan,gefangjizaiyebujinxiangtong,juxingchengyinxinghankoufenxingdashiji1934nian9yuezhoubaogaojizai“diyimingjuhuaxiang”,《liangyou》huabao1934nian10yuehaozhichu“diyimingjuhuaxiang、diermingzhangxianli”,er《shenbao》1934nian9yue10ridishiyibandengzai,“jieguodiyijuhuaqiang(jingbeilv),……,dieryangjihao(jishiyaofang),disansongnanting、disizhangxianding(junjingbeilv)”,danqishiqibanquebaodaocheng“juhuaqiangrongyingguanjun、eryangtianhao、sanzhaonanyan”。bizhecaiceguanjundemingzichuxianchabie,dangshuwuhanfangyanzhong“xiang”yu“qiang”tongyinerzaochengde。juxingchengyinxinghankoufenxingshishezaiwuhanbendideyinxing,kexinxinggenggao,qieyou《liangyou》huabaoshangdejiluxiangzuozheng,suoyi“juhuaxiang”gengweizhunque。yabowangyebandisanming,1990nian7yuedi1ban《wuhanshizhi·tiyuzhi》shangjizai,zai1934nianhankoushidonghuyouyongxuanbasaizhong,songnantinghuode1500miziyouyongbisaiguanjun,youciketuiduan,jijunxing“song”jiaoweikexin。cicibisaisuimingwei“wuhanrenshijijunrenhengduzhangjiangyouyongyouyisai”,danconghuojiangxuanshoudegouchenglaikan,bisaiqiansimingzhong,yousanmingweijingbeilvshibing,bunankanchubisairengyijunrenweizhuti。

  er、yinshuizaihouyandehengduzhangjiangbisai:shuiweiyusaichengzhimi

  1935nian7yue,zhangjiangliuyushuizaifanlan,hanjianggengshifashengtedahongshuizaihai,zhangjiangshuiweishangzhang,daozhihanyangdabufenchengqu、hankouhewuchanglinjiangquyubeiyan60-90tian,zhizhiruqiu,dashuicaijianjiantuiqu。youyuhengduzhangjiangluxianjingguohanjiangyuzhangjiangjiaohuikou,zaizheiyijiaohuikouchenggongqiangdushiwanchenghengduzhangjiangbisaizhiguanzhongyaodeyibu,hanjiangshuiliuliangdedaxiaohuizhijieyingxiangxuanshoudeyouyongbisai。suoyi,dierjiehengduzhangjiangyouyongjingsaiyu9yue22rixiawuyishijuxing,shijianjiaoshangyinianyousuotuichi。jingsaiqizhidianyushangjieyizhi,quancheng4400mi。yushangjiebaodaoxiangbi,jingcha2458mi,buzhiweihe。gengweiyihandeshi,cinian《shenbao》weijianzhangjiangshuiweibaogao。dangri“tianqihenuan,weishaoyoubotao,qiefengshinixiang”,duixuanshoubisaiyouyidingyingxiang。weibaozhengdujiangbisaideshunlijinxing,dangdizhengfuduidangribisaisuojingluxianjinxinglinshijieyan,duanjuejiaotong,bingbeiyouhuchuanliangbaiduozhi。

1935年武汉二届横渡长江比赛2.jpg

tu2 1935nianwuhandierjiehengduzhangjiangbisai,hankoushangandiandeweiguanqunzhong

  shoudiyijiehengduzhangjiangbisaidedaidong,cicibisairenshumingxianzengduo,gongyouliangbaiduorencanjia,erqierenyuangouchenggengjiafengfu,chujingbeilvshibingwai,haiyouxuesheng、gejiguanzhiyuanjishimin,zuihoudaodazhongdianderenshuchaoguobanshu。diyimingweijingbeilvshibingtanlianshan,chengjisanshibafenwumiao,jiaodiyijiechengjiyousuoxiajiang,kenengshishoujiangshuishangzhangdeyingxiang。dierminghedisanmingfenbieweihuxiguang(mintingzongtuanyuan)、liguohua(jingbeilvshibing),jingbeilvshibingyiranshibencibisaidezhuli。

  san、minguoshiqidezuihouyijiedujiangbisai:saiqiheguanjunzhimi

  1936nian8yue,wuhanjuxingledisanjiehengduzhangjiangbisai。danduibichazhaodaodeliangfenziliao,faxianzaiyixiejutifangmiancunzaichuru。

  《shenbao》1936nian8yue24ridediershiyibanyuanwenruxia:

  “武汉横渡长江游泳

  冠军彭勇华

  中央社廿二日汉口电,武汉三届横渡长江游泳竞赛,廿三日下午二时在武昌黄鹤楼举行开水典礼,三时入水竞赛,其路线为由黄鹤楼下水,直至汉三北公司登岸,于各参加者全体到达终点后,当场由陈继承夫人等举行给奖仪式。

  中央社廿二日汉口电,汉体育会主办之第三届游泳比赛,廿一日在中山公园游泳池举行,报名与赛者,男女共四十一人,分男子高级、中级及幼童三项锦标,至下午四时许全部竞赛完毕。结果,彭勇华荣膺冠军,成绩卅六分卅五秒,破上届卅八分五秒记录,宋丁元第二,李云樵第三,大会共录取优胜者廿五人。”

  juxingchengyinxinghankoufenxing1936nian8yuededashijiruxiajizai:

  “横渡长江赛 轰动三镇之武汉第三届横渡长江游泳比赛于廿二日下午三时举行。由武昌黄鹤楼起赛,至汉口三北码头为终点,赛程四千四百公尺,赛员共计176人,结果彭勇员荣膺冠军。两岸观众达廿万人以上,盛况洵属空前云。”

  duibizheiliangfenziliaokeyifaxian,juxingchengyinxingjizaideshijianwei8yue22ri,er《shenbao》zeshi“zhongyangshenianerrihankoudian,……niansanrixiawu……”,poweikeyi,22riruhenengbaodao23rifashengdeshiqing,qiecongdisanjieyouyongbisaihoudeguanjunchengjikan,dapodezhengshishangjiehengduzhangjiangsaiguanjundejilu,xianranshi《shenbao》cierzexiaoxipaibanduochuchucuo。yinercaiyongjuxingchengyinxingjizaide8yue22ri,jiaoweikexin。bisaideqizhidianyuqianliangjieyiyang,《shenbao》jizaisaicheng4400mi。bukesiyideshi,《liangyou》huabao1936nian9yuehaobaodao“jichengshibagongliyu”,guoyukuazhang,xianbufushi。

  cicigongyou176rencansai,zuizhong,diyimingchengjishi36fen35miao,daposhangjiejilu,danrengmeiyouchaoguodiyijie。zaiguanjunhuodezhefangmian,mingziyouchuxianlebutong。《shenbao》baodaowei“pengyonghua”,erjuxingchengyinxingdashijiqueshi“pengyongyuan”。zaichayue1936nian9yuehaode《liangyou》huabao,zeshi“diyimingpenghuayong,diermingsongdingyuan”。zheisanchudejizaijunbuxiangtong,nanyizuozheng。songdingyuanhuodeyajun,liyunqiaodisan。

1936武汉渡江赛,汉口市长吴国桢夫人黄卓群颁奖.jpg

tu3 1936nianwuhandisanjiehengduzhangjiangyouyongbisai,hankoushizhangwuguozhenfurenhuangzhuoqunweihuojiangzhebanjiang

  zheishiminguoshiqidezuihouyijiehengduzhangjiangbisai,1937nian7yue7rikangrizhanzhengquanmianbaofa,wuhanhengduzhangjiangjingsaihuodongzhongduan,zhizhixinzhongguochenglihoushoumaozedongzhuxihengduzhangjiangdedaidong,caizhongxinxianqiwuhanqunzhongxinghengduzhangjiangderechao。

  zheisanjiehengduzhangjiangyouyongbisaiqizhidianyizhi,dansaichengjizaiquebutong,diyijiequancheng6858mi,houliangjiezeshi4400mi,1990nian7yuedi1ban《wuhanshizhi·tiyuzhi》shangmianzechengsanjiedoushi5000mi,kenengshishoudangshitiaojiansuozhi,celiangbuzhunque,yeyoukenengshigefangbaodaohuoceliangbiaozhunbuyisuozhi。duibizheisanjiebisaichengji,diyijiechengjizuiyou,suihouliangjiecansairenshumingxianzengduo,danjunweichaoyueqianzhe。minguoshiqijuxingdezheisanjiehengduzhangjiangyouyongbisai,kaichuanglewoguoqunzhongxinghengduzhangjiangyouyongbisaixianhe,shoudaowuhansanzhenminzhongdexiaihezhichi。

  youyuminguoshiqitongxunsheshibingburuxianjinzheimefada、bianli,suoyixiaoxidechuandihuicunzaiyidingdewucha。erqie,youyuniandaijiaoweijiuyuan,xiangguanjizaijiaoshao,daozhiyouxiexinxiwufaqueren。suoyi,haixuyaowomenqufajuegengduodeshiliaolaijiekaizheiyiduanlishideshenmimiansha。

  (zuozhe:wumin、lihuan。benwenyi《minguoshiqidesanciwuhandujiang》biaotifabiaoyu《danganjiyi》2016niandi6qishiyougaidong。)

  cankaowenxian:

  [1]《shenbao》1934nian9yue10ridishiyiban、dishiqiban,1935nian9yue23ridishierban,1936nian8yue24ridiershiyiban。

  [2]juxingchengyinxinghankouzongwuchu《zhoubaoliudi》,1934niandierce·zhoubaodi15hao(9yue3rizhi9ri)·zazu,亚博网页版guanzangdangan,quanzonghao:lishi104,muluhao1,anjuanhao53,yehao15。

  [3]juxingchengyinxinghankouzongwuchu《zhoubaoliudi》,1936niandierce·zhoubaodi21hao(8yue17rizhi23ri)·zazu,亚博网页版guanzangdangan,quanzonghao:lishi104,muluhao1,anjuanhao87,yehao90~91。

  [4]《liangyou》huabao1934nian10yue1richuban,di95qi,di3ye。

  [5]《liangyou》huabao1936nian9yuehao,di120qi,di9ye。

  [6]wuhandifangzhibianzuanweiyuanhuizhubian:《wuhanshizhi·tiyuzhi》,wuhandaxuechubanshe,1990nian7yuedi1ban,di15、79ye。

  [7]wuhanshifangxunzhihuibubangongshibian:《wuhandifangzhi》,1986nian5yue,di19、20ye。

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